2 March 2017

Research in the context of global health emergencies: writing a background paper for the Nuffield Council on Bioethics.

By Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra and Nayha Sethi

Health care workers at JFK hospital in Monrovia prepare to go into the Ebola ward. © 2014 Kevin Sieff/The Washington Post, Courtesy of Photoshare
In 2016, in the wake of the Ebola and the Zika outbreaks, the international community’s response to global health emergencies and their associated moral, regulatory and political implications once again came under intense scrutiny. For the bioethics and governance communities these were real challenges, forcing us to revisit some of the most difficult ethical questions around pandemics, such as health inequality, weak health system and access to care, and reproductive health. The challenges were all the greater for having to address them within the global (heterogenous) regulatory systems. The response to Ebola for example, developing at the intersection between humanitarian response, care, and research activities - each with their values and goals - brought into question well established ethical norms and practices. It was against this background that the Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a call to commission research on research in the context of global health emergencies.

We were fortunate to win the commission to take on this work. The brief was clear: we were to produce a background paper on the ethical and governance issues raised by research in the context of global health emergencies. The result was a challenging, but extremely interesting experience for both of us. As newcomers to the topic, there were unexpected obstacles. For example, we spent quite a few hours questioning what might, or might not count as a global health emergency. We also faced obstacles many academics will be familiar with: how to reduce a wealth of literature (relevant regulatory and governance tools, laws, partnerships, practices, actors, cases, practices and lessons-learned) into a short, comprehensive document that would be accessible, and of use to the Council.

In the end, however, teasing out some of the conflicts was one of the most interesting exercises. For example, in the particular context of infectious diseases, how do we reconcile the ‘moral obligation to learn as much as possible, as quickly as possible’ (WHO 2016) with the seemingly equally important norm of not sacrificing care for the sake of conducting research? Perhaps unsurprisingly, then, our concluding section was organised around various sets of tensions:

1. Tensions between ‘response’ and ‘research’: for example, how can care, research and innovation co-exist efficiently and ethically?
2. Tensions within research: for example to what extent can we develop anticipatory ethical and regulatory frameworks for research during epidemics, in a context where oversight and governance need to be particularly sensitive and responsive to evolving and emerging situations?
3. Tensions arising in priority-setting and collaboration: for example, when engaging local, regional and global communities, how do we ensure that all voices are heard and differing priorities are taken into account?

It is not often that academics witness their work being put to immediate practical use. In this case, our background paper served to inform a workshop at the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, to which we were also invited. The event brought together
scientists, physicians, responders, regulators, ethicists and other stakeholders to discuss some of the issues arising from the paper. We have certainly been inspired to think in-depth about some of the issues we encountered while writing. We are grateful to the Council for providing us with the opportunity to do so, and we look forward to continuing to contribute to this important field.

The background paper can be accessed here.

35 comments:


  1. MY NAME IS MARIAM FROM SOUTH AFRICA...I SAW THIS COMMENT ON POSITIVE BLOGS AND I WILL LOVE TO TELL EVERYBODY HOW MY STATUS CHANGES TO NEGATIVE, AND AM NOW A LIVING WITNESS OF IT AND I THINK ITS A SHAME ON ME IF I DON'T SHARE THIS LOVELY STORY WITH OTHER PEOPLE INFECTED WITH THIS DEADLY VIRUS...,HIV HAS BEEN ONGOING IN MY FAMILY... I LOST BOTH PARENTS TO HIV,. AND IT IS SO MUCH PAIN IVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET OVER.. AS WE ALL KNOW MEDICALLY THERE IS NO SOLUTION TO IT..AND MEDICATION IS VERY EXPENSIVE..SO SOMEONE INTRODUCED ME TO A NATIVE MEDICAL PRACTITIONER IN AFRICA..I HAD A JOB THERE TO EXECUTE SO I TOOK TIME TO CHECK OUT ON HIM.I SHOWED HIM ALL MY TESTS AND RESULTS.. I WAS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH HIV AND IT WAS ALREADY TAKING ITS TOWL ON ME.. I HAD SPENT THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS SO I DECIDED TO TRY HIM OUT...I WAS ON HIS DOSAGE FOR 1 MONTHS. ALTHOUGH I DIDNT BELIEVE IN IT, I WAS JUST TRYING IT OUT OF FRUSTRATION... AND AFTER 2 WEEKS, I WENT FOR NEW TESTS... AND YOU WONT BELIEVE THAT 5 DIFFERENT DOCTORS CONFIRMED IT THAT AM NEGATIVE..IT WAS LIKE A DREAM,,I NEVER BELIEVE AIDS HAS CURE..AM NOW NEGATIVE,,AM A LIVING WITNESS..I DONT KNOW HOW TO THANK THIS MAN... I JUST WANT TO HELP OTHERS IN ANY WAY I CAN..HAVE JOINED MANY FORUMS AND HAVE POSTED THIS TESTIMONIES AND ALOT OF PEOPLE HAS MAIL AND CALLED THIS MAN ON PHONE AND AFTER 2 WEEKS THEY ALL CONFIRMED NEGATIVE..BBC NEWS TOOK IT LIVE AND EVERY.. HOPE HE HELPS YOU OUT.. EVERYBODY SAW IT AND ITS NOW OUT IN PAPERS AND MAGAZINES THAT THERE'S NATIVE CURE FOR HIV AND ALL WITH THE HELP OF THIS MAN,,HAVE TRIED MY OWN PARTS AND ALL LEFT WITH YOU,,IF YOU LIKE TAKE IT OR NOT..GOD KNOWS HAVE TRIED MY BEST.ABOUT 97 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED NEGATIVE THROUGH ME..AND THEY SEND MAILS TO THANKS ME AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED NEGATIVE,,THIS MAN IS REAL..DON'T MISS THIS CHANCE,,HIV IS A DEADLY VIRUS,,GET RID OF IT NOW..
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    Replies
    1. My Name is Robert Fred from Canada..it gives me great joy to share with you on how I was cured of a dreaded virus called HIV Disease by Dr.ZUKU,a powerful traditional herbalist.i have be suffered for 8years and till now i am still shocked but the good new is that Dr,ZUKU is the reason for my smile today. i don't know to explain how everything worked. the healing happened within the twinkle of my eye. after all the years of going from places to another for remedy. i got my cured finally. May God continue to bless his work and also to my best friend who searched him on his internet and directed me to contact him. after writing to him he prepared my herbal cure and how i am to use it and withing 2 weeks after using herbal remedy i went to check up and was found that my HIV Virus was gone and was negative.It is indeed a great news to those who must be suffering from one disease or virus, Dr Zuku is able to challenge that affliction. Why not visit him today through: drzukuspelltemple@gmail.com call or text for more information +16177296273

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  2. hello
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    ReplyDelete
  3. Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HIV) for the past 5 years now; I had spent a lot of money going from one place to another looking for way to get rid of this disease, the hospital have been my home everyday residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR.Temi helped someone in curing his HIV disease, quickly I copied his email which is (superherbalmiracletemple@gmail.com) just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on superherbalmiracletemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  5. My name is gilberto melo from poland,i was diagnosed of HIV for over 2 years which made me lose my job and mostly part my life was gone because i couldn't keep up with myself, until a friend from Singapore introduce me to a healer called Dr Emua and ask me to contact him which i did without hesitation so he responded and i told him my problems and he promise me solution and ask me to trust have fate in my herbals medicine, which i did, i did what he demanded of me and after a week he ask me to go for an HIV test and to my greatest surprise i came out negative and till now the doctors is still surprised, about my situation so i want everyone out there that is leaving with HIV/AIDS to should please contact him from cure on his email address on Do not loose hope too soon contact him If you need his help, you can Email him @ dremuahelphome@outlook.com or dremuahelphome@gmail.com for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this number +2347063628174 and i am confident he will help you too.

    ReplyDelete
  6. I was diagnosed with HIV by my ex girlfriend in 2011 and i have tried all possible means to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal man called Dr Oboite who can prepare natural herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HIV, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact the herbal man via his email, he prepared the herbal cure and sent it to me via UPS delivery service, when i received his herbal cure,he gave me direction on how to take it, when i take it as he instructed, i was totally cured from this deadly disease within 7 days of usage, I am now free from this deadly disease called HIV, all thanks to Dr Oboite. if you are passing through the same problem you can contact him via his email,droboiteherbalcurehome@gmail.com or call his number or whatsapp him, +2348054265852,he can also help with this following problems, HEPATITIS B,ALS, CANCER,HERPES,HPV,TO GET PREGNANT

    ReplyDelete
  7. The Great Dr.OLIHA herbal medicine is a good or perfect cure remedy for HIV Virus, I was diagnose of HIV for almost 5 years, everyday i am always on research looking for a perfect way to get rid of this terrible disease as i always knew that what we need for our health is right here on earth though the scientist say there is know cure for this disease,on my search I saw some different testimony on how Dr. OLIHA has been able to cure HIV with is herbal medicine. I decided to contact this man, I contacted him and he guided me on how to purchase for the medicine. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. OLIHA herbal med icine, I’m very grateful to Dr. OLIHA, reach him now on (oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com ) or you can also call him on +2349038382931.

    Dr. OLIHA Also Cures:
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    13.CHLAMYDIA
    14.ZIKA VIRUS

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hello,
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    ReplyDelete
  9. My Name is Robert Fred from Canada..it gives me great joy to share with you on how I was cured of a dreaded virus called HIV Disease by Dr.ZUKU,a powerful traditional herbalist.i have be suffered for 8years and till now i am still shocked but the good new is that Dr,ZUKU is the reason for my smile today. i don't know to explain how everything worked. the healing happened within the twinkle of my eye. after all the years of going from places to another for remedy. i got my cured finally. May God continue to bless his work and also to my best friend who searched him on his internet and directed me to contact him. after writing to him he prepared my herbal cure and how i am to use it and withing 2 weeks after using herbal remedy i went to check up and was found that my HIV Virus was gone and was negative.It is indeed a great news to those who must be suffering from one disease or virus, Dr Zuku is able to challenge that affliction. Why not visit him today through: drzukuspelltemple@gmail.com call or text for more information +16177296273

    ReplyDelete
  10. Am Kevin, Thanks to Dr Alli who cured me of weak erection and a small penis. My newly welded wife wanted to leave me because of premature ejaculation and weak erection of my sex organ. Until I saw Dr Alli s recommendation online, and I decided to communicate with him. And he profile a solution to my problem. In case you want to contact him for a similar problem or all other issues, you can email him at
    Allispellhelp1@gmail.com or call him at +2348100772528

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hello, am Tanya Albert from United State. am happy sharing this great testimony on how i was checking for solution in the Internet then miraculously i came Across Dr Ekpiku, the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his Email: (ekpikuspellhomeofgrace@gmail.com) I Explained everything to him and he prepared me a herbal medicine that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 Disease totally after making use his herbal medicine, So My friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Ekpiku, that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS,LOW SPERM COUNT,ALS, ANCE PIMPUS, LUPUS VIRUS, HPV You Can "CONTACT him Via : Email : (ekpikuspellhomeofgrace@hotmail.com) or Whats app; +2348073673757 You Can Contact Him Today And Get Your Problem Solved or call/text me +16506538578.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Hey...... My name is Angela Fox, I have been living with HIV/AIDS

    for the past 5 YEARS. i will forever be thankful to God for using Dr Akhigbe to

    heal me when i thought it's all over, today i'm happy with my family after i'm

    confirmed HIV Negative from my Doctor, i have never believed that i can be cure

    from HIV/AIDS. I want to use this opportunity to reach others who have this disease

    by testifying the powerful herbs of Doctor Akhigbe sent to me, contact him through

    his email akhigbespellhome@gmail.com he also have herbal cure Hepatitis B and C

    with Penis Enlargement Cream you can email him via his email

    akhigbespellhome@gmail.com all thanks to you once again Doctor Akhigbe

    WhatSapp +2349035428122 You can reach him via his email

    akhigbespellhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  13. My name is favour patric i am from Canada, I want to give a testimony on how I got cured from Herpes Virus. Few months back I was having herpes symptoms virus.; I went to see a doctor and many blood tests was done on me, later on I was told i have Herpes virus in my body. My doctor told me that there's no cure for Herpes I felt bad, I went online searching for a possible cure for Herpes Virus, I saw a post of one mr mark john telling people how Dr. UDURO a herbal doctor that cured him and his wife from Herpes.i search more i met someone again saying the same thins about this man Dr Uduro, so i collected his whatsapp number +2348138634433 I contacted him and told him how I'm feeling he said his herbal medicine can cure me. He sent me the medicine via DHL deliver Service and I received the medicine some days after he sent it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him. Before the completion of the medication the symptoms stopped. I went to the doctor and carried out another blood test, surprisingly I was Negative. I haven't had any symptoms anymore, you can contact him via Email drudurohaberahome@gmail.com or whatsapp OR call his cell phone +2348138634433 website Not true just contact him and get cure from Dr UDURO healing spell cure of all kinds of sickness Like
    HIV/AIDS,
    DIABETIES,
    CANCER,
    HIPATITES ABC,
    DIARIA,
    Chronic,
    Arthritis
    He can also bring back your Ex lover back to you.Remember delay in treatment leads to death email him via drudurohaberahome@gmail.com his website link https://drudurohaberahome.wixsite.com/druduro

    ReplyDelete
  14. I am here to give a testimony about Dr. Uyi regarding HPV who cure me from it, i want to inform the general public how i was cured from (HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS) by Dr. Uyi, i visited different hospital but they gave me different type of drugs but never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HPV and i saw comment of people talking about how Dr. Uyi cure herpes virus. When i contacted him he gave me hope and said not to worry that he can totally cure me, after little discussion he proceed with the preparation of the medicine and send it to me. Today, I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that there is no cure for HPV/HSV that is Not true just contact him and get cure by Dr. Uyi, He has different type of cure to so many disease/virus. You can contact him on his Email: uyiherbalmedicationcenter@gmail.com or WhatsApp/CALL him on +2348077199766.

    ReplyDelete
  15. I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it. I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world has crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could leave a normal life if I took my medications (as there was no medically known cure to Herpes). I went from churches to churches but soon found that my case needed urgent attention as I was growing lean due to fear of dying anytime soon. In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the herbal world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, cos I heard that the African Herbs had a cure to the Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr Itua(A powerful African Herbal Doctor), who offered to help me at a monetary fee. I had to comply as this was my final bus-stop to receiving a perfect healing. My last resolve was to take my life by myself, should this plan fail. At last it worked out well. He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Last month, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that negative,Dr Itua Can As Well Cure The Following Desease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetis,Fribroid,Get Your Ex Back, You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Herbal Doctor via this e-mail: drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2348149277967 He will help you and his herb medication is sure. he has the cure on all disease .

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hello i'm from London, i know a renowned spell caster who helped me when i had problems in my marriage with my Wife. If you need a right place to solve your relationship problems contact DR.OGUDUGU TEMPLE on: ( GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM ) OR WHATSAPP +2348139793075 he is the right choice, he is a great man that has ever been.

    ReplyDelete
  17. This is real take it serious, who will believe that herbs can cure HIV, i never believed that this will work, i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great man who is well known to have HIV, herpes, cancer and many other cure, i decided to email him, unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HIV disease in my body, he prepare the herbal medicine for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, i drank the herbal medicine for three weeks, after then i went to the hospital for a check up, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me negative, i thought it was a joke, i went to another hospital it was also confirmed to be negative, then i took my friend who was also HIV positive to the Dr EMUA , after the treatment she was also confirm negative . He also have the herbs for many sickness, i want everyone who is sick to contact DR EMUA that is why am dropping his email address, do contact him he is a great man. the government is also interested in this DR EMUA herbal medicine, that's why his herbal medicine are all registered, thank you for saving my life, and I promise I will always testify for your good work. contact him through his email dremuahelphome@outlook.com or dremuahelphome@gmail.com for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this number +2347063628174

    ReplyDelete
  18. HIV Virus is a very terrible virus, if not for my Husband and the help of the great Dr.Ezra my life would have been a mess! I was diagnose with HIV virus in 2014, my husband encouraged me, and told me not to lose hope, I manage to give birth to a baby Boy who was free from this virus, and my Husband was always there for me! One day he came to me and told me that he have found a man who can cure me. Base on scientist, they said there is no cure for HIV virus; he told me that he has seen many testimonies about him on the internet. We decided to contact him, and he asked us to buy some local root and herbs items which we did! and he prepared for me a herbal medicine and 1 month later he asked me to go for medical test, faithfully and hopefully i went for the medical test, and Behold I was cured from this virus and its was not found in my Body system again. My Dear Husband and my Father Dr.Ezra, God will surely bless the both of you till the end of time, If you have any problem kindly contact him via his Email: drezraherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or message him on WhatsApp with this number +2348116755255.

    ReplyDelete
  19. HIV Virus is a very terrible virus, if not for my Husband and the help of the great Dr.Ezra my life would have been a mess! I was diagnose with HIV virus in 2014, my husband encouraged me, and told me not to lose hope, I manage to give birth to a baby Boy who was free from this virus, and my Husband was always there for me! One day he came to me and told me that he have found a man who can cure me. Base on scientist, they said there is no cure for HIV virus; he told me that he has seen many testimonies about him on the internet. We decided to contact him, and he asked us to buy some local root and herbs items which we did! and he prepared for me a herbal medicine and 1 month later he asked me to go for medical test, faithfully and hopefully i went for the medical test, and Behold I was cured from this virus and its was not found in my Body system again. My Dear Husband and my Father Dr.Ezra, God will surely bless the both of you till the end of time, If you have any problem kindly contact him via his Email: drezraherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or message him on WhatsApp with this number +2348116755255.

    ReplyDelete
  20. i want to make this known to the entire world, i see many women complaining on not getting pregnant well let me tell you women on the best and safe method of get pregnant and deliver safely, i was 42 years old and i had been married since i was 22years I was not able to conceive my own child until i was browsing internet for a solution on how to get pregnant and i saw some comment of some women saying how they got pregnant that they contacted Odia Herbal Center and they got pregnant , i then decided to take a bold step because i was running out of time because i was already 42years old , i contacted Odia Herbal Center and Dr Odia did a pregnancy medicine for me and within two weeks of contacting him i took in i was pregnant and i gave birth to josh my son and now josh is doing very well and i also have a new born baby girl , my advice to other women is that you can contact Odia Herbal Center via email. odiaherbalcenter@yahoo.com or whatsapp: +1(518)502-5386

    ReplyDelete
  21. i want to make this known to the entire world, i see many women complaining on not getting pregnant well let me tell you women on the best and safe method of get pregnant and deliver safely, i was 42 years old and i had been married since i was 22years I was not able to conceive my own child until i was browsing internet for a solution on how to get pregnant and i saw some comment of some women saying how they got pregnant that they contacted Odia Herbal Center and they got pregnant , i then decided to take a bold step because i was running out of time because i was already 42years old , i contacted Odia Herbal Center and Dr Odia did a pregnancy medicine for me and within two weeks of contacting him i took in i was pregnant and i gave birth to josh my son and now josh is doing very well and i also have a new born baby girl , my advice to other women is that you can contact Odia Herbal Center via email. odiaherbalcenter@yahoo.com or whatsapp: +1(518)502-5386

    ReplyDelete
  22. i want to make this known to the entire world, i see many women complaining on not getting pregnant well let me tell you women on the best and safe method of get pregnant and deliver safely, i was 42 years old and i had been married since i was 22years I was not able to conceive my own child until i was browsing internet for a solution on how to get pregnant and i saw some comment of some women saying how they got pregnant that they contacted Odia Herbal Center and they got pregnant , i then decided to take a bold step because i was running out of time because i was already 42years old , i contacted Odia Herbal Center and Dr Odia did a pregnancy medicine for me and within two weeks of contacting him i took in i was pregnant and i gave birth to josh my son and now josh is doing very well and i also have a new born baby girl , my advice to other women is that you can contact Odia Herbal Center via email. odiaherbalcenter@yahoo.com or whatsapp: +1(518)502-5386

    ReplyDelete
  23. i want to make this known to the entire world, i see many women complaining on not getting pregnant well let me tell you women on the best and safe method of get pregnant and deliver safely, i was 42 years old and i had been married since i was 22years I was not able to conceive my own child until i was browsing internet for a solution on how to get pregnant and i saw some comment of some women saying how they got pregnant that they contacted Odia Herbal Center and they got pregnant , i then decided to take a bold step because i was running out of time because i was already 42years old , i contacted Odia Herbal Center and Dr Odia did a pregnancy medicine for me and within two weeks of contacting him i took in i was pregnant and i gave birth to josh my son and now josh is doing very well and i also have a new born baby girl , my advice to other women is that you can contact Odia Herbal Center via email. odiaherbalcenter@yahoo.com or whatsapp: +1(518)502-5386

    ReplyDelete
  24. Am Angela, thanks to Dr Osaze who cured me of HIV. I contacted HIV on my struggle to get a good education for my self. The symptoms were already showing in me, due to my incessant failing health. Until a friend saw Dr osaze's recommendation online, on how he has helped so many people, and we decided to reach him. And he applied his herbal medicine on me, and I bounce back to my previous heath status. In case you want to reach him for a similar issue you can call him at +2347089275769 or email him at drosaze39@gmail.com.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Many people wonder if there is a natural cure for hiv or are looking for ways on how to get rid of hiv for good. there are many natural hiv remedies that can put Hiv into remission. there is a method for how to get rid of Hiv Wish is taking of herbal medicines. My problem with Hiv has caused me many traumas,especially in my sex life.I was so afraid of infecting my boyfriend, I suffered the embarrassment of visiting dermatologists queries hundreds of times.Unfortunately,they did not find a definitive solution to my problem.The solution came from the least expected herbal doctor which is Dr Tokubo. By reading in a specialised forum on the subject,How to cure Hiv virus completely. Many people had tried, with excellent and quick results.I had nothing to lose so I decided to contact dr.tokubo and use his herbal medicine to eliminate my Hiv. I spent two weeks using his herbal medicine and today my Hiv completely disappeared and turn out negative after numerous test from different hospital. I recommend this method to all people who want to eliminate the Hiv from their body forever, The doctor contact, drtokubotemple@gmail.com or Call/Whatsapp Number:+2349037990322.He cure the bellow sickness/illness
    HERPES
    HSV 1 & HSV 2
    ASTHMA
    DIABETES
    EPILEPSY
    CANCER
    INFERTILITY
    STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
    BARENESS
    HIV /AIDS
    HEPATITIS B
    Kidney?
    HPV
    ALS

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  26. Very interesting read. I've suffered with herpes ever since I was a child but it's only been the last few years I discovered that I have genital herpes. So I started looking for a way to get cure permanently from this deadly virus I visited so many hospitals in search for a solution but it never worked out.so I started searching for cure to my herpes virus.

    Few month ago I came across a site where a lady was sharing a testimony about Dr IJAHO about how he cured herpes and all kinds of diseases with is natural herbs so I decided to give it a try so I email the Dr he told me how I was going to get the herbs so I did as he instructed few days later I received the herbs and I started taking the herbs as instructed by the Dr.

    I was shocked two weeks after when my doctor told me that I was free from herpes so I decided to let the world know how I was cured from herpes by Dr IJAHO. you can reach him through his email: drijahosolutioncenter@gmail.com if you also want cure for your herpes or any of the disease listed below because the Dr says he also as cure for them.

    CANCER

    HEART FAILURE

    DAIBETES

    HPV

    EX BACK

    LOTTERY LUCKY NUMBER

    GENITAL WARTS





    His email:drijahosolutioncenter@gmail.com

    His whatsap number: +2348103601042

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  27. Thanks to dr.Azen for his good work I never believe that HIV has cure, I
    was HIV positive over 3 year now before I came across a comment about how
    dr.Azen cure HIV and herpes disease but when I saw it i have it in mind
    that he can’t cure HIV I just decided to give it a try I contact him that
    night luckily to me he replied me, but I don’t believe him I thought it was
    a scam but I still hold on to see the work of Dr Azen if he is saying the
    truth he ask for some details about me i gave him all he needed and I
    waited to see his reply to my problem after I have taken the herbal he told me to go for check up and I went for HIV test I cant believe I was negative,am so happy and
    grateful to God for using Dr Azen to cure me, that is the reason why i
    decided to write this wonderful testimony of how i was cured, i recommend
    Dr.Azen to you all around the world,contact him on his Email Dr. Azenherbalcure02@gmail.com or you can also reach him through WhatsApp number +234810 691 7688
    dr.Azen for helping me at this young age if you need help contact,
    He can also cure so many sickness like
    (1) herpes(2) hiv(3) als(4) dick enlargement(5) hepatitis B(6) ALOPECIA(7) CANCER,(8) DIABETES,(9) HERPES CURE(10) GETTING YOUR LOVER OR HUSBAND BACK(11) IMPOTENCE,(12) BARENESS/INFERTILITY(13) DIARRHE (14) ASTHMA

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  28. This is real take it serious, who will believe that herbs can cure HIV, i never believed that this will work, i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great man who is well known to have HIV, herpes, cancer and many other cure, i decided to email him, unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HIV disease in my body, he prepare the herbal medicine for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, i drank the herbal medicine for three weeks, after then i went to the hospital for a check up, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me negative, i thought it was a joke, i went to another hospital it was also confirmed to be negative, then i took my friend who was also HIV positive to the Dr EMUA , after the treatment she was also confirm negative . He also have the herbs for many sickness, i want everyone who is sick to contact DR EMUA that is why am dropping his email address, do contact him he is a great man. the government is also interested in this DR EMUA herbal medicine, that's why his herbal medicine are all registered, thank you for saving my life, and I promise I will always testify for your good work. contact him through his email dremuahelphome@outlook.com or dremuahelphome@gmail.com for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this number +2347063628174

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  29. I was diagnosed of Hepatitis B in 2016, I have tried all possible means to get cure but all my effort proved abortive, until a friend of mine introduced me to a herbal doctor from Africa called Dr.Ere, who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Hepatitis B virus (Hepatitis B), when i contacted this herbal doctor via his email: dreremuselespell@yahoo.com, he sent me Hepatitis B herbal medicine via courier service, when i received the herbal medicine he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed i was totally cured from the virus within 14 days of usage. Contact this great herbal doctor via (dreremuselespell@yahoo.com) or call him on his phone number +254728442268



    ReplyDelete
  30. I NEED A GENUINE SPELL CASTER TO HELP ME WIN A LOTTERY: CONTACT DOCTOR OCUSODO NOW DROCUSODOSPELLCASTER@GAMIL.COM HE IS THE BEST OF ALL

    My name is Leann Crane i!!! i am very grateful sharing this great testimonies with you, The best thing that has ever happened in my life is how i win the lottery. I am a woman who believe that one day i will win the lottery.finally my dreams came through when i email Dr OCUSODO. and tell him i need the lottery numbers. i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never know that winning was so easy until the day i meant the spell caster online which so many people has talked about that he is very great in casting lottery spell, so i decide to give it a try.I contacted this man and he did a spell and he gave me the winning lottery numbers. But believe me when the draws were out i was among winners. i won ( FIVE MILLIONS DOLLARS) Dr. OCUSODO i truly you are the best, with these man you can will millions of money through lottery. i am so very happy to meet these man, i will forever be grateful to you. Email him for your own winning lottery numbers (drocusodospellcaster@gmail.com) or (drocusodospellcaster@yahoo.com)

    WhatsApp or call him now: +2349067457724

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  31. The only symptom that I had was tingling in my legs especially at night after I retired to bed. The tingling became more severe where I could not get them to stop. I thought I had restless leg syndrome. My doctor tested me for diabetes and found that I had type II diabetes and the sugar was attacking my legs because it had no place to go. He put me on a sugar free diet and Actos and within one to two days my symptom were gone.. One day I got extremely sick, could not keep anything down, had blurry vision, a rapid heartbeat.I Started taking metformin 1000 mg twice daily. I am writing this to inform others that nothing was really working to help my condition.I went off the metformin (with the doctor’s knowledge) and started on Diabetes herbal formula i ordered from Health Herbal Clinic, my symptoms totally declined over a 7 weeks use of the Diabetes natural herbal formula. i am now doing very well, Visit there website www. healthherbalclinic. net or email Info@ healthherbalclinic. net This treatment is incredible!

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  32. Hello everybody,
    I don't just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for herpes, I have been suffering from herpes since last three years with my boyfriend but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine of Dr Aba the great healer,I was browsing the internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr Aba cure his herpes I was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr Aba brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine. I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly contact this great healer on his email address: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com please sir keep your good work cause there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more contact him now: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com you can call him or whatsApp his number +2348107155060

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  33. You are welcome to Dr Agbi spiritual herbal temple, is a great temple which has been in existence for the past 67 year and it has been past from generation to generations. What I do here is 100%guaranteed and no matter what the problem is, my medication must work for the power behind it,my medication is very powerful and secured, no harm and very easy, And this temple is a place of seriousness what I want here is real people who really want their problems to be solve and not a playing ground if you need your ex. love back. a brooking marrriage, or loosing with out a good result, running from one diseases to another do let me know.i shall cast a great spell for retsorement of life and happiness And in this temple there are rule that can never be violated:
    {1} Do not tell anybody about the medication until you have seen result {2} Do not work with me and the same time working with another herbalist doctor it is either you make a choice {3} Do not come here for jokes or take your medicaion for granted These are the rule and regulations you must follow in other for a good herbal medication and to get good result of 100% guaranteed cure, But before i start with the cure your details will be needed bellow,
    YOUR NAME;?
    YOUR COUNTRY:?
    YOUR OCCUPATION:
    YOUR MOBILE NUMBER:
    YOUR HOME ADDRESS
    YOUR AGE;
    FROM YOU: If I get the detail I will proceed with the cure,
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